Soil conservation methods

Soil conservation methods

 Soil is an important source of life on Earth. It supports many plants and microorganisms. In order to cure all the environmental problems and soil related problems it is necessary to adopt some soil conservation methods.

Hmm.. you want to know about soil conservation methods ok then let’s check it out !

Soil is very important for agriculture and building up of nature.

WHAT IS SOIL ?

It is a mixture of : –
  1. Organic matter
  2. Minerals
  3. Gases
  4. Liquids and
  5. Organisms that together support life.
It is basically the material on the ground where the plant grows easily and soil varies due to its structure and its composition.

TYPES OF SOIL

There are many types of soil present on Earth and they are : –
  1. Alluvial and Black Soil
  2.  Red and Loamy Soil
  3. Sandy and Silt Soil

SOIL CONSERVATION METHODS

Soil conservation methods are necessary to protect the soil and hence some of the the soil conservation methods are : –
  1. Vapour Extraction : – In this process air is injected into the soil to remove organic compounds that evaporate quickly.
  2. Bio-remediation : – Here we use bacteria and other micro-organisms to clean up the soil.
  3. Phyto-remediation : – We use plants whose roots absorb pollutants and store them in their stems and leaves.
  4. Dilution :- We remove pollutants from the soil by running large quantities of water through the soil .
  5. Contour ploughing :- This technique is primarily used on sloping land.
  6. Terrace Farming :- Terraces are protected from erosion by other soil barriers.
  7. Runoff control :- All the trees, shrubs and the ground cover are very effective for preventing the soil erosion .
  8. Crop rotation
  9. Soil-conservation farming
  10. Salinity management :- Salinity in the soil is caused by irrigating it with salty water and then the water evaporates from the soil .
  11. Soil organisms
  12. Mineralization

WHAT IS THE STATE OF SOIL IN THE WORLD ?
IGTC ( Inter-governmental Technical Panel ) and UN FAO together released the report : –

‘ Status of the World’s Soil Reserves ‘.

It was the first major global assessment ever on soils and related issues.

The report states the work of some 200 scientists from around 60 countries.

The report provides us a global view on : –

  1. Current state of the soil
  2. Its role in providing economic services and
  3. The threats to its services.
 WHAT WAS THE CONCLUSION OF THE REPORT ?
The conclusion of the report is given below : –
Majority of the world’s resources were in only fair, poor or in very poor conditions and these conditions are not vital for our future.We can face severe agricultural issues.
According to the report, the world’s soils are facing major threats .
Given Below is the picture of terrace cultivation.

Soil conservation methods

 SOME MAJOR THREATS TO SOIL HEALTH

Soil is in great danger right now and this is because of poor environmental conditions and behaviour.

The major threats to the soil health are  : –

  • Nutrient Imbalance : – This leads to the food insecurity, poor water quality and greenhouse gas emissions.

Soil Acidification : –

In soil acidification we observe building up of hydrogen and aluminium ions in the soil and  loss of cations such as : –

  1. Calcium
  2. Potassium
  3. Magnesium and
  4. Sodium from the soil due to leaching of bases.
  • Biodiversity loss : – Here we observe decline in the diversity of micro and macro-nutrients present in the soil.
  • Contamination of soil : –Addition of chemicals into the soil.
  • Soil erosion
  • Soil organic carbon loss
  • waterlogging of soil

WHAT IS THE STATE OF SOIL IN INDIA ?

As stated by the ICAR ( Indian Council Of Agricultural Research )  : –
Do you know that 5.3 billion tonnes of soil gets eroded every year in India and the number will tend to increase if we do not control our activities. One of the main problem is deforestation and it further leads to soil erosion.
Well out of this  : –
  1. Around 29% is permanently lost in the sea and
  2. 10% is deposited in reservoirs reducing their storage capacity.
WHAT ARE THE  PRIMARY SOURCES OF SOIL EROSION ?

The main primary sources of soil erosion are  : –

  1. Deforestation and
  2. Terrace cultivation.

Tropical climate also helps to support soil erosion.

CONCLUSION

Since you all know that soil is one of the most important source of life on Earth and also you know about the soil conservation methods, let’s reduce our impact on environment.

Promoting organic farming is a great way to help in maintaining the soil quality.

Plant more and more trees to maintain the soil quality. Soil is home for millions of microorganisms and almost all the plants on Earth and planting more trees will help us to recover from all the soil related problems in a faster way.

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